Non-Agricultural Market Access (NAMA)
The trade in manufactured goods in the WTO is referred to as Non-Agricultural Market Access (NAMA). Essentially this means trade in other physical goods that are not agriculture, mostly manufactured goods.
Negotiations in the WTO Doha round over manufactured goods have been as contentious as the negotiations in agriculture. The key issue relates to the levels of tariff cuts required for developing countries.
Developing countries generally have higher levels of tariffs, which are needed to enable their industries to develop. WTO rules are meant to recognise the principle that developing countries need differential treatment in order to develop new industries, just as Australia, the US and Europe and used tariffs in their historical development. But proposals from industrialised countries have ignored this principle and would have required developing countries to make bigger cuts in their tariffs than industrialised countries, and would not have allowed them to have exceptions for sensitive industries.
AFTINET supports the right of developing countries to have special and differential treatment in the negotiation of tariffs on manufactured goods.
NAMA update September 23rd - Article from Martin Khor that provides an update post July and highlights how the Swiss Coefficient violates the 'less then full reciprocity' principle.
"Stop, wrong way, go back" - Press release from trade unions from countries likely to be majorly impacted by NAMA changes.
"Anti-Concentration Clause" - ITUC briefing note on the Clause.